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African and Albino: “Not ghosts, but humans” by Zahra Dry

Albinism is a genetic disease, inherited from both parents, that causes a lack of pigmentation in the skin, hair and eyes. While praised in some countries, in parts of Africa Albinos are often highly discriminated against. Tanzania has the highest Albino birth rate, with one in every 1500 children born with the condition, but these children are at risk from birth as there is still a belief in witchcraft that can put these children in danger.

The UN has become actively involved in documenting and preventing the violence imposed on African children due to traditional witchcraft and with the emergence of Dr Abdallah Possi, the first Albino Deputy Minister, and a determined President Magalufi, attackers face harsher penalties for harming vulnerable Albino women and children. Tanzania’s Albinos have historically been deprived of education and alienated, but now specialised schools and communities, including the Ukewere Island Albino Sanctuary and Canadian NGO: ‘Under the Same Sun’, strive for equality.

While the journey continues, the previously silent torment and beauty of the Albino community grabs the world’s attention. Stories of survivors receiving prosthetic limbs, winners of Zimbabwe’s ‘Miss Albino’ pageant, and even Rihanna creating Albino-inclusive makeup, inspire thousands of Albinos to find their voice, amaze us with their bravery and let us know they are “Not ghosts, but human beings” (UN Human Rights Commission). Learn more about the movement here.

Zahra worked as a paid intern at Family Kids & Youth during her time following A levels before starting a law degree at UCL. Zahra ran some of the peer-to-peer focus groups for FK&Y’s Wellbeing and the Internet Study.

Global UN Study finds that giving condoms to secondary school students reduces sexually transmitted diseases

A study from the United Nations Population Fund has reviewed the consequences of giving out condoms in secondary schools. The review concluded that providing condoms to young people does not increase the likelihood that they will engage in sexual activity or lead to them engaging in sexual activity at a younger age. The introduction of condoms was also found to reduce sexually transmitted infections. However, the research also stated that teenage pregnancy rates are unaffected. The review of scientific literature found that the majority of research was from wealthy countries and recommends that this is an area of research that could be expanded upon in other countries. Currently these schemes tend to be in place in countries where rates of teenagers with STIs and pregnancies are low, and it’s possible that a greater effect would be found in researching where these are more common. Particularly in countries with high levels of HIV.

Rural and coastal UK schools struggle to engage with government interventions and can be left feeling educationally isolated

A report from academics at the University of Plymouth and Plymouth Marjan University has revealed that rural and coastal schools can feel isolated from government support. Specifically, these schools struggle to access externally-funded educational interventions. The researchers concluded that urban schools having higher levels of connection to national funding schools than rural and coastal schools, which increases disparities in school funding. These schools are more likely to express isolation from initiatives aiming to improve social mobility, research and improvements. There is also an issue of recruitment within rural and coastal schools who struggle to attract a high quality workforce. The authors recommend to policymakers that reform should take place regarding priority areas and target schools. They further urge funding agencies and organisations to work with school leaders in isolated schools to increase awareness and understand how extra funding and support could be best utilised.

Children continuously put at risk by American farm work

While the United States has strict rules regarding the type of environments children can work in, agricultural jobs for young people are still common with an estimated 500,000 labourers under the age of 18. A mixture of state and federal guidelines allows children to be employed in this sector as long as their work hours do not interfere with school and they are kept out of harms way. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration agrees, saying children as young as 12 can work in agricultural settings, but only if “a parent has given written permission or is working on the same farm”. Younger children under age 12 are also allowed to work, but only on farms where the owners are exempt from paying the minimum wage, which is currently $7.25 an hour in most states.

Farming is a risky occupation meaning children who work in this field can be exposed to harm. Some organisations have tried to make the occupation safer by introducing new regulations such as “[decreasing] pesticide exposure incidents” amongst labourers but unfortunately, the reality is children employed on farms are still vulnerable. There continues to be accounts of young people sustaining serious bodily harm while working in the agriculture industry, with a “disproportionately high” number never recovering from certain accidents.

Since child labour in this form is often ignored, a number of advocacy groups have worked hard to raise the public’s awareness and become more conscious of who harvests their food. Groups such as the Human Rights Watch, the National Farm Worker Ministry and the Child Labour Coalition actively encourage the abandonment of labour in this form. Even former child farmworkers have spoken out against the practice, citing the physical toll it has had on their developing bodies. Together these movements have the power to enact change and prevent future generations of children from taking on this type of work.

Nyasha Nyamhondoro

UK teachers becoming overwhelmed by additional tasks and unnecessary stress

Educational Review has recently published findings that highlight problems facing many teachers within the UK today. The in-depth research with 39 teachers from England and Wales found widespread  mental health issues were being experienced amongst the cohort. Demanding workloads, considerable paperwork, reaching academic targets and rapid policy changes were discussed. Many felt that these issues were getting in the way of their primary focus – the children they teach – by making them devote more time to mentally exhausting issues. Gerry Leavey, who led the study, explains that “[teachers] express a tension between the old view of what it means to be a teacher…and the new managerialist view – accountability, performativity and meeting standards in a new, corporate world.” He goes on to say that high numbers of educators are leaving the profession due to these issues, as the stress encroaches on their personal lives.

Tech parents’ views on education and future work

‘Preparing for change: How tech parents view education and the future of work’ is a new report by techUK. The study surveyed over a hundred parents working in tech companies and found that the majority are optimistic about technological job opportunities of the future. Despite public negativity surrounding automation and new technologies, 64% of tech parents were optimistic or very optimistic about the future job opportunities that would be available to their children. Having said this, 73% believe that the curriculum did not place sufficient emphasis on the types of skills that would become more vital in the future world of work. They also think that evolution of new technology will require frequent retraining. 90% believe their children would need to retrain throughout their lives to keep up with the pace of technological change.

Divorce found to affect a child’s mental health more at certain ages

The impact of parental break-ups has been studied by researchers from University College London. Data from over 6,000 children, gathered as part of the longitudinal Millennium Cohort Study, has been analysed to assess children’s mental health at age 3, 5, 7, 11, and 14. A fifth of the sample experienced parental splits during this time. The findings suggest that family breaks-ups in late childhood and early adolescence are most likely to lead to behavioural and emotional problems in children. Children who experienced a parental break-up between age 3 and 7 were no more likely to suffer mental health problems than those whose parents stayed together. However, a parental split between the ages of 7 and 14 was found to increase children’s emotional problems by 16% on average, with findings consistent for both privileged and disadvantaged groups. Behavioural problems were also much more prevalent among boys in these circumstances.

Boys and girls learn differently when it comes to virtual reality

Research from the University of Copenhagen has determined that when it comes to virtual reality (VR), adolescent male and female students learn differently. With a study focusing on 66 seventh and eighth grade students from Denmark, it was discovered that if children identified with the avatar seen on screen, their knowledge would improve. Boys were able to concentrate more on a drone figure, due to features that resembled a computer game with characteristics similar to a superhero or secret agent. With girls, however, using virtual reality in the form of a young researcher named Marie helped them absorb information better. This is also thought to be a potential step forward in keeping young females interested in science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM) subjects at school, as their attentiveness often decreases in their early teens.

Universities rely on fees to fund outreach activities essential to increase diversity

University tuition fees are said to be making progress possible for UK Universities to increase diversity. The annual £9,000 fee, introduced by the coalition government in 2012, came with the provision to secure gains in access and participation. As a result, higher tuition fees have leveraged £800m into schemes and bursaries for less advantaged students. Entry rates have increased in 95% of parliamentary constituencies since 2006. English pupils receiving free school meals were 83% more likely to go to university in 2017 than in 2006. However, there are variations by region, with 41.8% of 18-year-olds from London going to university in 2017, compared to 28.9% from the south-west and 30.3% from the north-east. Furthermore, the number of undergraduates from black and minority ethnic groups is also said to have risen by 38% between 2007-08 and 2015-16.

Can smartphones passively help to check and detect children’s mental health issues?

Studies are being conducted across the United States to investigate how to use Smartphones as early detectors of mental illness in teens. One of the goals for these studies is to detect the signs of mental illness at a much earlier stage, particularly among young people. The thinking behind it is that as users scroll through social media or watch YouTube videos, they leave digital footprints that might offer clues to their psychological well-being. These signs can be picked up through typing speeds, vocabulary, tone of voice and how these change over time. According to Dr. Thomas Insel, there might be over 1,000 ‘biomarkers’ for illnesses such as depression. Work is still being conducted to discern which parts of the data collected can act as significant predictors of mental health problems. Read more here.

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